ECB Holds Key Rate at 4% Amid Recession Fears, Ending Record Rate Hike Streak


October 27, 2023

New Delhi, India

ECB’s Decision Amid Economic Uncertainty

In response to mounting fears of an impending recession in Europe, the European Central Bank (ECB) announced on Thursday its decision to maintain its key interest rate at 4%. This marks the end of the ECB’s longest-ever streak of interest rate hikes in its 25-year history.

Inflation and Economic Impact

The ECB’s decision to keep rates steady was accompanied by observations that the latest data indicated a gradual decline in inflation, moving closer to the ECB’s target of 2%. The central bank emphasized that the current level of borrowing costs might be sufficient to control inflation if maintained for a “sufficiently long” period.

The Dampening Effect on Demand

The ECB pointed out that its previous interest rate hikes had a forceful impact on financing conditions, leading to a dampening effect on demand. This consequence has contributed to a decline in inflation.

A Shift in Focus

Over the past year, the ECB had steadily increased borrowing costs and phased out stimulus measures deployed to combat prolonged inflation, such as massive bond purchases and providing cheap funding for banks. These stringent measures aimed at reducing liquidity have begun to impact economic activity and credit creation negatively.

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Sustaining Record High Rates

The ECB’s focus has shifted from raising key rates to maintaining them at record highs. ECB President Christine Lagarde has emphasized that these elevated rates, when maintained for an extended duration, will significantly contribute to achieving the inflation goal of 2%, which is deemed ideal for the economy.

Continuation of Bond Purchase Program

The ECB also reiterated its commitment to continue replenishing the 1.7-trillion-euro ($1.79 trillion) pile of bonds purchased under its Pandemic Emergency Purchase Programme (PEPP) until the end of the next year. This program is considered the ECB’s first line of defense against market turbulence, although it faces challenges from some policymakers demanding an early end to this bond-buying scheme.

Growing Concerns of Weak Economic Growth and Recession

Recent economic data has raised concerns about weak economic growth and the looming risk of a recession. Stubbornly high inflation’s impact on consumers has affected economic growth in Europe. Some countries, including Germany, have reported sluggish economic growth, with Germany’s economy projected to shrink by 0.5% this year according to the IMF.

Economic Activity and Rate Hikes

Surveys of purchasing managers indicate a decline in economic activity in October. While rate hikes are a central bank’s primary tool against inflation, they can also weigh on economic growth by increasing the cost of credit for consumers and businesses, potentially impacting purchases and investments.

Economic Projections and Conclusion

Analysts at ABN Amro Bank forecast a 0.1% drop in economic output in the eurozone for the July-September quarter and a further decline of minus 0.2% in the last three months of the year.

In summary, the ECB’s decision to maintain a 4% key interest rate reflects concerns about a possible European recession and the need to sustain economic stability while addressing inflation. The move also signals a shift in focus from raising rates to preserving them at record highs.


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